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    Martian Concrete How to Make Concrete on Mars!

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Insights 0 thoughts on “Martian Concrete How to Make Concrete on Mars!”

    In order to colonise Mars, buildings will be needed and these will obviously need to be constructed from the planet’s own resources.

    What are the issues and how will this be done?

    The first issue is the apparent lack of water on Mars!

    Can Martian concrete be formed without using water?

    But Mars is a sulphur rich planet!


    NASA Mars Rover Churns Up Questions with Sulphur-Rich Soil

    Some bright Martian soil containing lots of sulfur and a trace of water intrigues researchers who are studying information provided by NASA’s Spirit rover. 

    “This material could have been left behind by water that dissolved these minerals underground, then came to the surface and evaporated, or it could be a volcanic deposit formed around ancient gas vents,” said Dr. Ray Arvidson of Washington University, St. Louis. He is the deputy principal investigator for NASA’s twin Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. 

    Determining which of those two hypotheses is correct would strengthen understanding of the environmental history of the Columbia Hills region that Spirit has been exploring since a few months after landing on Mars in January 2004. However, investigating the bright soil presents a challenge for the rover team, because the loose material could entrap the rover. 

    Image right: While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of “McCool Hill,” the wheels of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image, taken on the rover’s 788th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 22, 2006), shows the strikingly bright tone and large extent of the materials uncovered. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell

    The bright white and yellow material was hidden under a layer of normal-looking soil until Spirit’s wheels churned it up while the rover was struggling to cross a patch of unexpectedly soft soil nearly a year ago. The right front wheel had stopped working a week earlier. Controllers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., were trying to maneuver the rover backwards, dragging that wheel, to the north slope of a hill in order to spend the southern-hemisphere winter with solar panels tilted toward the sun. 

    Due to the difficulty crossing that patch, informally named “Tyrone,” the team chose to drive Spirit to a smaller but more accessible slope for the winter. Spirit stayed put in its winter haven for nearly seven months. Tyrone was one of several targets Spirit examined from a distance during that period, using an infrared spectrometer to check their composition. The instrument detected small amounts of water bound to minerals in the soil. 

    The rover resumed driving in late 2006 when the Martian season brought sufficient daily sunshine to the solar panels. Some of the bright soil from Tyrone was dragged to the winter site by the right front wheel, and Spirit spent some time measuring the composition and mineralogy of these materials. The material is sulfur-rich and consists of sulfate salts associated with iron, and likely calcium. “These salts could have been concentrated by hydrothermal liquid or vapor moving through the local rocks,” said rover science team member Dr. Albert Yen, a geochemist at JPL. Two other patches of bright soil uncovered by Spirit before Tyrone were also sulfur-rich, but each had similarities to local rock compositions that were different at the three sites, suggesting localized origins. 

    Researchers will watch for more patches of bright soil. “If we find them along fractures, that would suggest they were deposited at ancient gas vents,” Arvidson said. “If they are at the saddles between hills, that would suggest the deposits formed where groundwater came to the surface.” 

    Above article was originally published in NASA.gov


    Is that the solution?

    Sulphur can be heated so that it becomes liquid. If the sulphur liquid is added to the Martian soil/aggregate (consisting of silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, iron oxide, titanium dioxide) and allowed to cool the sulphur will solidify and bind to the Martian soil/aggregate to create Martian concrete.

    But can it be made durable enough to be useful on Mars?

    Research has found that a 50:50 mix of sulphur and soil with maximum aggregate size of 1mm will produce concrete with a compressive strength of above 50MPa. The Martian atmospheric and temperature range are adequate for hosting sulphur concrete structures.

    An interesting side light is that Martin concrete can be reheated until the sulphur melts and is infinitely re-useable and infinitely repairable.

    PROBLEM SOLVED!

    (Ref  A Novel Material for In Situ Construction on Mars: Experiments and Numerical Simulations Lin Wan, R Wendner, G. Cusatis and associates at Northwestern University, U.S.A.)

    FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE FLOOR, WALLS AND EXTERNAL PAVING REPAIRS

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Concrete Repairs, Featured Case Study 0 thoughts on “FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE FLOOR, WALLS AND EXTERNAL PAVING REPAIRS”

    FCS Concrete Repairs are experts in the repair of damaged factory and warehouse floors.

    FCS Concrete Repairs have the experience in all facets of concrete repair:

    • Concrete Floor Repair and Crack Injection
    • Concrete Wall Repair and Crack Injection
    • Joint Filling
    • Reinforced Concrete Replacement
    • Concrete Patch Repairs
    • Flexible Concrete Infills Across Joint [Latest Technology – Elastomeric Concrete]
    • Delaminated Concrete Topping Repair
    • Grated Drain Repair

    Does this look like your factory or warehouse floor or your external paving?

    Typically, concrete floors in factories and warehouses require repair due to:

    • Forklift damage
    • Cracking
    • Joint failure
    • Surface delamination, scaling, dusting
    • Sub-base subsidence, wash-outs, voids
    • Chemical damage
    • Design issues
    • Wear and tear

    If your factory or warehouse floors are affected by any of these issues then FCS Concrete Repairs have the experience and expertise to investigate, test, diagnose and recommend the most cost effective course of action to repair the floor and mitigate any further deterioration or future damage.

    Concrete floors suffer this damage due to a large number of contributing causes:

    • Forklift damage to floor joints and floor areas
    • Heavy Loading damage to floors
    • Failure when design limits are exceeded
    • Subsidence of the sub-base
    • Washout of the sub-base
    • Poorly compacted sub-base
    • Structural cracking
    • Cold storage damage to floors
    • Machinery loading on floors
    • Machinery vibration impacts
    • Concrete dusting
    • Concrete wear and tear
    • Rusting of internal reinforcement steel
    • Potholes
    • Floor demarcation line and safety marking wear
    • Ingress of water
    • Chemical damage
    • Ground movement
    • Stress loadings
    • Temperature changes
    • Product contamination of floor surface
    • Delamination of concrete toppings
    • Surface scaling
    • Deterioration of applied coatings
    • Plastic shrinkage cracking
    • Overworking of surface during concrete placing
    • Inadequate curing
    • Premature surface sealing during concrete placing
    • Improper concrete compaction
    • Excessive moisture loss during concrete placing
    • Poor structural design

     

    It is important to determine the root cause of the concrete failure and develop a strategy to remedy the cause and complete an effective repair with a minimum of disruption to operations by delivering the best possible outcome.

    FCS Concrete Repairs have a strong knowledge base to ensure that any repairs are effective. Our extensive prior experience in concrete construction, concrete repair techniques, selection of the appropriate repair methods and the right repair materials for the job will ensure a quality repair. There are a wide range of repair materials and selection of the correct material and methodology is critical to a successful outcome.

    FCS Concrete Repairs repair techniques include:

    Concrete Floor Repair and Crack Injection

    Concrete Wall Repair and Crack Injection

    Joint Filling

    Reinforced Concrete Replacement

     

     


    Concrete Patch Repairs


    Flexible Concrete Infills Across Joint [Latest Technology – Elastomeric Concrete]

    Delaminated Concrete Topping Repair

    Grated Drain Repair

    FCS Concrete Repairs are members of ACRA, the Australasian Concrete Repair Association.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are the Preferred and Approved Contractors to the major material suppliers such as Prime Resins in the USA, Parchem, Sika, Epirez, International, Fosroc, Dulux and Thorhelical Remedial Solutions.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are quality accredited:

    REPUTATION FOR QUALITY

    Our reputation is important to us and is built upon experience and an understanding of the importance of the full and thorough preparation of the repair area. Inadequate preparation and short cuts are not the answer to an effective repair and a sound LONG TERM solution.

    THE CHEAPEST PRICE IS NOT ALWAYS THE ANSWER but FCS Concrete Repairs can offer a competitive solution without sacrificing quality.

    If your property is in need of repair please contact us, firstly, for an inspection, secondly, for advice and, thirdly, for our recommended solution and competitive quotation.

    What Is Elastomeric Concrete?

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “What Is Elastomeric Concrete?”

    Elastomeric Concrete is a flexible 2-part polyurethane patching material mixed with aggregates and can be used as a filler in expansion joints which experience large movements.

    The properties which are most important for these materials are flexibility, elasticity, and bond strength.

    Flexibility and elasticity allow the material to absorb shock caused by traffic impacting on the extrusions.

    Bond strength to the adjacent surface is critical in all conditions, both wet and dry.

    Obtaining adequate flexibility and bond strength together in one material is difficult but has been achieved with this material.

    The key characteristics

    Elastomeric Concrete provides a flexible patch with excellent adhesion that will deflect as surrounding concrete expands and contracts and can resist heavy pressure before deflecting. The critical point is that Elastomeric Concrete allows itself to return to its original state after deflection.

    FCS Concrete Repairs has successfully used Elastomeric Concrete for repairing and patching concrete floors. This includes patching across expansion joints without the need for expensive joint reconstruction or major concrete removal.

    The following project photos illustrate the advantages of Elastomeric Concrete patching material:

    A Patch Across an expansion joint

    A Patch at the intersection of several expansion joints

     

    A Patch along an expansion joint

    A Patch at an entry threshold

    A Patch at a column base

    A Patch along an irregular crack

    Concrete Crack Injection

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Concrete Repairs, Crack Injection 0 thoughts on “Concrete Crack Injection”

    Cracks in concrete need to be repaired as they are a potential threat to the viability of the steel reinforcement within the concrete structure due to the ingress of water. Water quickly causes the internal reinforcement to corrode, expand and cause the encasing concrete to fracture and break away.

    Early treatment will prevent this process from taking place and enable the injection of epoxy resins or polymers into the cracks. Once the process of corrosion is allowed to occur then a costly repair is necessary and the steel reinforcement needs to be treated or replaced to prevent failure of the structure due to a recurrence of the corrosion process or the need for further expensive repairs.

    THE CRACK INJECTION PROCESS

    The surface of the concrete is first cleaned along the crack. Loose material and contaminants are removed. The crack is the cleaned out to remove any material so that the resin or polymer can flow freely into and along the crack.

    Resin is then injected under pressure either into injection ports which have been place at intervals along the crack. Crack injection is a skilled task and should only be undertaken by experienced tradesmen.

    Crack injection may be undertaken using a pump to apply pressure or using a hand pressure gun.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are specialists in Crack Injection and Concrete Repair. There are a variety of repair processes and materials available and FCS Concrete Repairs are experienced in selecting the appropriate process and the specialist material required to carryout an effective repair.

    FCS Anti-Graffiti Solutions

    June 5th, 2018 Posted by Blog, Epoxy Coating, Insights 0 thoughts on “FCS Anti-Graffiti Solutions”

    LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: The very latest in ANTI-GRAFFITI SOLUTIONS.

    IS THIS ART OR SOCIAL VANDALISM?

    Our local Council for the City of Ryde have recently acknowledged the problem of Graffiti Management:

    “Graffiti is a problem everywhere, and the City of Ryde is no exception. This anti-social pastime defaces both public and private property. In NSW, any graffiti on public or private property is a criminal offence unless permission is given by the owner. It is punishable by imprisonment, community service orders or fines of up to $2,200.”

    FCS Concrete Repairs now have the latest solution to the problem!

    FCS Concrete Repairs have rights to a very newly developed coating which enables Graffiti to be easily removed from its surface using a fully biodegradable product.

    The anti-graffiti coating is coloured or clear and can be applied to all surfaces including paint and most other coatings, timber, concrete, brickwork, manufactured surfaces and claddings, and natural materials such as sandstone, granite, marble etc.

    The clear version maintains the appearance of the existing surface, seals and provides protection and enables Graffiti to be completely removed without damage to the surface when any Graffiti attacks are reported.

    FCS Concrete Repairs provide the FULL SOLUTION from coating application to general maintenance and Graffiti removal.

    This is a great development for FCS Concrete Repairs and for the Community, and complements our current range of services in concrete repairs, protective coatings, crack injection and structural strengthening.

    De-icing Concrete: the world’s first bridge to incorporate conductive concrete

    October 3rd, 2017 Posted by Blog, Insights 0 thoughts on “De-icing Concrete: the world’s first bridge to incorporate conductive concrete”

    A unique bridge that resides about 15 miles south of Lincoln has given Tuan reason to feel confident. In 2002, Tuan and the Nebraska Department of Roads made the 150-foot Roca Spur Bridge the world’s first to incorporate conductive concrete. Inlaid with 52 conductive slabs that successfully de-iced its surface during a five-year trial run, the bridge exemplifies the sort of targeted site that Tuan envisions for the technology.

    The concrete mix’s designer, UNL professor of civil engineering Chris Tuan, has added a pinch of steel shavings and a dash of carbon particles to a recipe that has literally been set in concrete for centuries. Though the newest ingredients constitute just 20 percent of Tuan’s otherwise standard concrete mixture, they conduct enough electricity to melt ice and snow in the worst winter storms while remaining safe to the touch.

    By replacing the limestone and sand typically used in concrete with a mineral called magnetite, Tuan has shown that the mixture can also shield against electromagnetic waves. Cell phones are unable to receive service for example and the conductive concrete may be useful in shielding against espionage.

    University of Nebraska-Lincoln
    Nebraska Today
    By Scott Schrage
    University Communication

    For morinformation visit news.unl.edu

    A Truism: Modern Concrete Cracks and Concrete Leaks!

    October 2nd, 2017 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Concrete Repairs, Crack Injection, Main Feature, Projects 0 thoughts on “A Truism: Modern Concrete Cracks and Concrete Leaks!”

    There are four types of concrete!

    Concrete that can crack!

    Concrete that has cracked!

    Concrete that can leak!

    Concrete that has leaked!

    Truism: This observation is obviously true and says nothing new or even interesting about concrete but if you have a problem and need a solution then:

    TALK TO THE DIRECTORS AT FCS CONCRETE REPAIRS.

    They are ready to help you!

    When does concrete crack and leak?

    Shrinkage cracks may occur when water evaporates from the concrete soon after it is layed during the drying process. (that is, the curing process) Hot weather can cause rapid evaporation if curing compound is not properly used to slow the evaporation and cold weather can slow the evaporation process. Fine cracks give the opportunity for water to penetrate the concrete and cause the steel reinforcement to rust and concrete degradation.

    Structural cracks when the concrete structure is over-loaded or subject to design flaws will allow water to penetrate the concrete and cause the steel reinforcement to rust leading to concrete degradation.

    Concrete cancer cracking when water penetrates into the concrete and causes the internal steel reinforcement to corrode, expand and cracks form from within allowing water to leak through the concrete element.

    Concrete cracking when the sub-base is inadequate or a washout occurs allowing water to flow under and through the concrete element.

    Soil movement below the sub-base due to natural movement or the expansion and contraction of the underlying clay earth in times of heavy rain or drought allowing water to flow below and washout the concrete element.

    Cracking due to freezing conditions followed by thawing which may also cause expansion and contraction and allow water to leak through and below the concrete element.

    Hot summers can cause cracking due to expansion of the concrete and allow the ingress of water.

    Washouts behind retaining walls may also result in structural cracking and gushing leaks.

    HEADLINE NEWS!

    Fortunately, experienced Concrete Repair Contractors like, FCS Concrete Repairs, have the solutions. Experienced tradesmen, high-tech equipment and repair materials, and technical knowledge can combine to provide near permanent solutions to concrete cracking and leaking. Early intervention is also critical in enabling effective repair and cost effective solutions.

    What can be done?

    Badly damaged concrete can be replaced BUT this can be costly and involves:

    • Investigation
    • Demolition
    • Removal
    • Replacement

    Modern crack injection methods can provide a cost effective alternative solution:

    • Polyurethane injection

    Single component hydrophobic foam can be injected to stop water infiltration and to stop high pressure flowing water and to fill voids behind the structure or joints or cracking in concrete.

    Two component hydrophobic rapid setting foam can be injected. This foam is highly reactive, high strength and expands up to ten times when in contact with ground water.

    • Polyurea Silicate

    Two component low density foam to fill cavities provides structural strength and flexibility to stabilise strata.

    • Acrylic

    One component water based acrylic joint sealant and gap filler which has low adhesive and compressive strength, but high tear strength.

    • Cementitious Grout

    A combination of cement and water, plus admixes or additives to alter their properties. There are three main types – pure cement mixes (PCMs) composed of cement and water, admixed cement mixes (ACMs) composed of PCM and admixtures, and additive cement mixes (ADCMs) composed of ACM and additives.

    • Epoxy injection

    Two component, low viscosity, solvent free, moisture insensitive, structural epoxy injection resin used to seal cracks and cavities and forms an effective barrier against the infiltration of water and bonds concrete to restore structural integrity. Doesn’t bond as well to wet surfaces.

    FCS Concrete Repairs has the expertise to investigate, test, diagnose and recommend on the most appropriate and cost effective solution to your concrete cracking and leaking problem.

    How to seal leaks in concrete structures

    October 2nd, 2017 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Leak Sealing, Waste Water Treatment, Water Storage, Water Treatment Plant 0 thoughts on “How to seal leaks in concrete structures”

    Prime Flex 900 XLV polyurethane resin is a low viscosity, hydrophilic resin that reacts with water and expands to form a closed cell, watertight foam. It is typically injected under pressure to seal actively leaking joints and cracks in concrete structures, including hairline cracks. This product is independently tested and proven to meet NSF/ANSI Standard 61.5 for contact with potable water.
    Recommended Uses include injecting hairline cracks, expansion joints, wide cracks, pipe joints, or pipe penetrations, or sealing active leaks in above-grade or below-grade concrete structures.

    This can be used for water treatment tanks, dams, below-grade concrete walls, tunnels, manholes and elevator service pits.

    Prime Flex 900XLV is compliant for contact with potable water, can expand and contract parallel to the crack in varying temperatures, can expand up to 600% unconfined and has a low viscosity to allow it to penetrate tight hairline cracks deep into the structure.

    When the material contacts water, it reacts to form a white, flexible gel-like foam that acts as a barrier, sealing the cracks that allowed water to leak. As the foam reacts, it expands to fill the space and bond to the concrete to hold it in place, creating a closed cell mass that does not allow water to pass through or around it. The foam’s flexibility allows it to expand and contract along with the structure it has sealed, so it remains water tight despite temperature fluctuations.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are experts in leak repair and are available to help with your concrete repair requirements. FCS Concrete Repairs are approved applicators for this product in Australia.

    PRIME RESINS VIDEOS

    Prime Flex 900 XLV: Seal leaks in concrete structures

    Repairing an Active Leak in Cracked Concrete with 900 XLV

    Case Study: Sealing a manhole with chemical grout

    October 2nd, 2017 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Featured Case Study, manhole rehabilitation, Projects 0 thoughts on “Case Study: Sealing a manhole with chemical grout”

    Problem: Sinkholes had developed around storm drainage manholes in grassy areas of a military housing subdivision in Richmond, Virginia.

    Identifying the source: To pinpoint the sources of the problem, the contractor’s crew flooded the existing sinkholes and monitored the dry manhole to see where the infiltration entered.

    Solution: With on-site technical support from Prime Resins, the contractor injected Prime Flex 920 through the manhole wall to fill the voids and create a watertight curtain around the manhole. Prime Flex 920 is an expansive, hydrophobic polyurethane resin that reacts to form a rock-hard watertight mass. The grouting was done from inside the manhole because the repair locations were so deep, as much as 20 feet from the surface. Probe grouting from the surface outside the manhole can be done if the manhole is too narrow to work within.

    They installed four injection ports per pipe and injected each leak location starting at the lowest point and working up. This revealed a leaking injection hole from the previous repair attempt. Some 920 seeped out this hole and sealed it as well. The technicians repaired wide gaps around the main connection plus spalls and chips inside the collar using the activated oakum technique. They soaked oil-free oakum with Prime Flex 900 XLV and pushed it into the gaps where the reacted resin sealed the openings. The 900 XLV is a very low viscosity polyurethane and is hydrophilic, so it creates a tenacious bond with the wet concrete.

    Outcome: The crew tested their repair by flooding the sinkhole again. No water drained into the manhole: their repairs stopped the infiltration. Finally, they removed the ports and plugged the holes with hydraulic cement.

    Read the complete case study here.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are experts in leak repair and are available to help with your concrete repair requirements. FCS Concrete Repairs are approved applicators for Prime Resins in Australia.

    Request a quote here.

    ANCIENT 2,000 Year Old Concrete

    June 23rd, 2017 Posted by Blog 0 thoughts on “ANCIENT 2,000 Year Old Concrete”

    Will the Roman 2000 year product guarantee stand up for today’s concrete mix designs?

    Ancient concrete mixes have stood the test of time and withstood all of the environmental attacks known to mankind for over 2000 years. Today’s concrete, however, is susceptible to environmental damage and often needs protection or repair or, in the extreme, reinstatement within thirty (30) years.

    What is the secret to 2000 year old concrete?

    Roman concrete mix designs were simple. No admixtures. No risk from sulphates. No issues with the penetration of water. No steel reinforcement to rust. No concrete cancer.

    Ancient concrete consisted of just three elements:

    • The paste – limestone (crushed and burnt)
    • The “sand” – volcanic ash
    • The aggregate – large lumps of rock

    The burnt volcanic ash has an amorphous silica structure with many holes in the molecular network which fill with calcium hydroxide upon mixing with wet lime and becomes the paste which binds the rocks together. Sand in modern concrete however is crystalline and does not have holes in the molecular structure to accommodate the cement paste.

    Ancient Romans mixed their concrete product by hand and tamped the mortar into place thus minimising the water content and therefore created a low slump and highly durable mix.

    They also discovered that the volcanic ash developed hydraulic properties when mixed with lime and then realised the advantages of hydraulic lime, i.e. cement that hardens underwater.

    The Pantheon

    Built by Rome's Emperor Hadrian and completed in 125 AD, the Pantheon has the largest unreinforced concrete dome ever built.

    The Trajan's Market

    Trajan's Market is a large complex of ruins in the city of Rome, Italy, located on the Via dei Fori Imperiali, at the opposite end to the Colosseum.

    The Colloseum

    Also known as the Flavian Amphitheatre

    Modern Fly Ash Mix Designs.

    Some modern concrete mixes use fly ash as a supplementary cementitious material which delivers improved workability and, like the Ancients, later age strength and high durability.

    Modern Concrete Mixes.

    But unlike those majestic Roman structures, today’s cities are plagued by crumbling concrete tower blocks and decaying bridges and expressways.

    Today’s concrete is made using Portland cement, coarse and fine aggregates of stone and sand, and water steel reinforcement.

    Admixtures are chemicals added to the concrete mix to control its setting properties and are used primarily when placing concrete during environmental extremes, such as high or low temperatures and windy conditions.

    Although steel reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used construction materials around the world, it can suffer degradation over time due to the embedded steel corroding, causing the concrete to crack and “spall”.

     

    In extreme situations, the integrity of the structure may be lost, resulting in the need for partial or complete demolition. Corrosion affects all reinforced concrete buildings and structures to some extent, with an estimated annual cost of billions of dollars to national economies. In addition, loose damaged pieces of spalled concrete falling from buildings and structures is a real safety risk.

    When chlorides, carbon dioxide gas and other aggressive agents penetrate concrete, they initiate corrosion of reinforcement that typically results in cracking, spalling and weakening of the concrete infrastructure. As reinforcing bars rust, the volume of the rust products can increase to many times that of the original steel, increasing pressure on the surrounding material which cracks the concrete. The cracks can then propagate to delamination and eventually spalling of the concrete.

    Usually, the most exposed elements deteriorate first but because the active corrosion may take five to 15 years to initiate cracks in the concrete, much of the actual corroded reinforcement is not visible. Such corrosion is often called “concrete cancer”, because it appears as if the structure was being eaten away from the inside.

    We have now realised these issues with modern concrete, for example:

    • Thousands of passengers have been travelling over Hawkesbury River Rail Bridge connecting Sydney to the Central Coast every day, despite a crucial supporting pylon being riddled with “concrete cancer”. With cracks up to two metres long, the pylon is so severely deteriorated it crumbles away like powder.

     

    • Edgewater Towers in St Kilda’s Marine Parade is a notorious example of how costly concrete cancer can be. The modernist block of 100 apartments sprang up in 1961 but by the 90s spalling was ravaging its balconies. Issues were still being remediated as recently as 2011.

     

    • Gold Coast’s Ageing High-Rises. Bodies corporate of these ageing buildings are now faced with the prospect of either having to spend hundreds of thousands of dollars, if not millions of dollars, rectifying concrete cancer and other building defects, or they look to cash out and sell to developers.

     

    • It was recently revealed that one building — the landmark Focus Apartment tower — needed $2.7 million in repairs to prevent “extremely dangerous” deterioration from concrete cancer or spalling.

     

    • The 20-storey Iluka Surfers Paradise high-rise was demolished after concrete cancer destroyed its structural integrity.

     

    • Dozens of 40-year-old Gold Coast high rise apartment towers built in the 1970s face million-dollar concrete cancer repair jobs similar to the $215 million in repairs needed by Brisbane’s City Hall.

     

    • When it was finished in 1978, the 67-storey MLC Centre in Martin Place, Sydney, was not only Australia’s tallest office building, but also the biggest reinforced concrete structure in the world. Thirty-three years later in 2011, the Harry Seidler-designed structure is showing its age. Its concrete facade is breaking up and the owners have agreed to spend $100 million repairing it in an operation that will go 24 hours a day, seven days a week for four years.

     

    • The Sydney Opera House might be one of the world’s most iconic buildings but it faces potentially significant conservation challenges, a US philanthropic organisation says. The Getty Foundation has awarded the Sydney Opera House Trust $US200,000 ($A224,000) for a study of the concrete elements of the building and to develop long-term conservation strategies should it become necessary in the future.

     

    Concrete Repair Methodology

    Concrete repair methods need to provide a permanent solution in order to avoid a recurrence. FCS Concrete Repairs will Investigate, Diagnose, Test and Recommend the appropriate solution which will depend on the extent of damage and the feasibility of the repair or if necessary reinstatement of the concrete element affected.

    The nature and type of repair will be determined by:

    • Extent of corrosion of reinforcement
    • Extent of loss of strength of reinforcement
    • Extend of loss of the bond between the reinforcement and the concrete
    • Extent of deficiency in concrete cover over reinforcement
    • Extent of deflection due to cracking in the tensioned areas.
    • Extent of honeycombing in concrete
    • Extent of porosity of concrete
    • Extent of damage and loss of strength due to sulphate attack.
    • Extent and width of cracking

    THE MORAL TO THE STORY IS THAT IMMEDIATE ACTION MUST BE TAKEN WHEN THE PROPERTY OWNER BECOMES AWARE OF THE EARLY SYMPTOMS OF CONCRETE DEGREDATION OR DETERIORATION IN ORDER TO AVOID A MASSIVE ESCALLATION IN THE COST OF REMEDIATION OR, IN THE EXTREME, THE NEED FOR COMPLETE REINSTATEMENT OF THE STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS.

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