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    Restoring The 4,600 year old Pyramid of Djoser:

    The Oldest Structure In Egypt

    The Pyramid of Djoser has been controversially restored to save it after 4,600 years of damage from the harsh desert environment, earthquakes, looting and general deterioration. The builder, Imhotep, is credited with being the first recorded Architect in history.

    The techniques used by the Welsh Engineers, Cintec International, challenged traditional architects’ views on the construction of Egyptian Pyramids and their restoration.

    Cintec International used their patented anchoring system to reinforce the structure which was in a state of internal collapse in the main burial chamber. Stainless steel reinforcing bar enclosed in a mesh fabric sleeve were inserted into diamond drilled 100mm core holes to a depth of 30 metres. A special grout was then injected under low pressure into the sleeve.

    Photo Reference: Wikipedia, The Pyramid of Djoser

    Waterwall air bags on top of stabilised scaffolding were used to support the loose stone structure during the process.

    The Burial Chamber

    Photo Reference: Peter James, Structure Magazine

    It was discovered that the entire pyramid was not constructed from large stone blocks but smaller stone which was easier to handle was used inside the pyramid and this stone was dangerously close to collapse in the ceiling of the main burial chamber. Much of the smaller internal stone had In fact fallen from the ceiling and walls onto the sarcophagus and the chamber floor.

    Photo Reference: Wikipedia. The Main Chamber Ceiling

    Externally the outer stones collapsed due the extreme range of temperature (from 50°C down to 3°C) between day and night. This external façade was also being restored concurrently with the internal restoration.

    References:

    National Geographic Documentary 2015 Saving Egypt’s Oldest Pyramid Full Documentary HD

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