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    One of the Greatest Buildings of the 20th Century in Sydney is Built on a special meeting place known to the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation for thousands of years as Tubowgule.

    December 12th, 2019 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “One of the Greatest Buildings of the 20th Century in Sydney is Built on a special meeting place known to the Gadigal people of the Eora Nation for thousands of years as Tubowgule.”

    The building is the Sydney Opera House which is World Heritage listed as “a masterpiece of human creative genius” and its sail like shape is recognisable world-wide as being synonymous with Sydney and Australia.

    The unmistakable shape of the Sydney Opera House sails fit in with the building’s natural surroundings on Sydney Harbour. The design of the sails was a challenge until Architect Jorn Utzon delivered the “spherical solution” in the design of the sails where the ten roof sails were built from segments of the same sphere.


    A 2018 Report looked at three high priority areas for the development of the Conservation Management Plan thanks to a grant from the Getty Foundation:


    The most recognisable part of the Opera House building, the sails are fully exposed to the marine environment, and could be vulnerable to water ingress should there be any failure in the ceramic tile skin, or in the grouting inside the post-tensioning ducts of the ribs. Regular inspections of accessible areas indicate that the condition of the protective system is good, however the Opera House is searching for new non-destructive testing methodologies that will enable the condition of the inaccessible interior of the sail structures to be monitored.


    These steel-reinforced concrete structures at the base of the roof sails are completely exposed to the natural elements and to human touch. There is a particular impact from rainwater runoff, which causes erosion and biological growth on the structures. Protective coatings have been trialled in the past, and all have been rejected due to either being ineffective, or having an unacceptable architectural impact.


    The Broadwalks are built on steel-reinforced concrete piles, which stand in the Harbour. The Western Broadwalk is fitted with cathodic protection, while the Northern and Eastern Broadwalks are not. The project studied the condition of the concrete under the Northern Broadwalk.

    Ref; Sydney Opera House, Concrete Conservation Project, Final Report Summary, August 2018



    The design life of the Sydney Opera House structure is 250 to 300 years.

    Under the Conservation Management Plan after more than 50 years exposed to a marine environment and the impacts of millions of visitors, some specific areas of risk in the concrete re being monitored through a robust preventative and corrective maintenance program. It is timely to undertake closer analysis of the condition of the steel-reinforced concrete in the structure to ensure its longevity.


    As Sydney prepared to host the 2000 Olympics, the Opera House kicked off an Olympic Arts Festival with ‘Tubowgule’. To the sound of didgeridoos and clapping sticks, dancers evoked the celebrations and ceremonies that had occurred on Bennelong Point for thousands of years.


    The Sydney Opera House celebrates the richness of our First Nations people and their culture through its First Nations Program.


    The first performance at the Sydney Opera House was in 1960 when Paul Robeson climbed the scaffolding and sang Ol’ Man River to the construction workers as they ate lunch.

    Video: Paul Robeson https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eg7bPgrosAE


    The Sydney Opera House is featured in colour and music at the annual Vivid light spectacular in Sydney.

    Video: Vivid Sydney 2019 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NnzO5U6zEvo


    The Sydney Opera House is the cultural heart of Sydney with great ballet and opera performances by our own “La Stupenda” Dame Joan Sutherland and New Zealand’s Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, Rudolf Nureyev and Dame Margot Fonteyn, Sir Robert Helpmann and the Australian Ballet………..and so on.

    Video: The Best Performances of Dame Joan Sutherland from the Sydney Opera House https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XoZtnsJp0Zg

    What is Carbon Fibre Structural Strengthening?

    October 22nd, 2019 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “What is Carbon Fibre Structural Strengthening?”

    Carbon fibre reinforced polymer is an extremely strong and very durable material which is applied externally to strengthen concrete structures without the need to demolish and replace the existing structure such as concrete beams, suspended slabs and structural columns.

    This is a very cost effective method for structural strengthening where a structure is required to carry increased loads or where the structures design is inadequate.

    Carbon fibre is woven into in a matrix of Polymer Resin to form the material and its properties are dependent on the ratio of fibre to polymer as well as the structure of the matrix. This material is very light weight as it has a high strength to weight ratio.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are experienced in the application of CFRP plates, strips and wrap to the structural strengthening of building structures.

    FCS Concrete Repairs install the CFRP in accordance with the design prepared by Qualified Structural Engineers.

    A recent applications of this technology:

    Project: Surry Hills

    Structural Strengthening of Soffit.

    The scope of work was to supply all labour, materials, tools, equipment and materials for the Works associated with the Strengthening Sika CarboDur M Carbon Fibre Strips.


    • All work and requirements as per Sika CarboDur® Method Statement and PDS.
    • Preparation Grinding / Blasting surface.
    • Pull-off Tensile strength testing of the concrete substrate.
    • Tolerance, surface deviation, level measurement and testing to ensure minimum tolerances required.
    • The substrate moisture content must be tested and verified.
    • Plate pull-off testing semi-destructive Quality Control.
    • High Build epoxy to top of slab. Levelling 0 -10mm.
    • Remove all Services and Ceiling Tiles and Ceiling Grids, providing unimpeded access.
    • Protect Completed Product to ensure the Sika CarboDur® is not cut or drilled through or tampered with.
    • Generally repair all test holes and make good.
    • Clean and remove overspill, patch and make good, as required.
    • Conduct Testing and Commissioning.

    Product recommended by FCS Concrete Repairs for structural strengthening in this application:

    Sika® CarboDur® M

    Sika® CarboDur® plates are pultruded carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) laminates, designed for strengthening concrete, timber, masonry, steel and fibre reinforced polymer structures.

    Sika® CarboDur® plates are bonded onto the structure as externally bonded reinforcement using Sikadur®-30 epoxy resin based adhesive for normal applications.

    Sikadur 30LP is an epoxy resin based adhesive for elevated temperatures during application and / or service, however lead times do apply call your local Sika office for further information.


    Sika® CarboDur® M suitably experienced and trained specialist contractors.

    Sika® CarboDur® systems are used to improve, increase or repair the performance and resistance of structures for:

    Increased Load Carrying Capacity:

    • Increasing the load capacity of floor slabs, beams and bridge sections
    • For the installation of heavier machinery
    • To stabilise vibrating structures
    • For changes in building use

    Damage to structural elements due to:

    • Deterioration of the original construction materials
    • Steel reinforcement corrosion
    • Accidents (Vehicle impact, earthquakes, fire)

    Improvement of serviceability and durability:

    • Reduced deflection and crack width
    • Stress reduction in the steel reinforcement
    • Improved fatigue resistance

    Change of the structural system:

    • Removal of walls and/or columns
    • Removal of floor and wall sections to create access / openings

    Resistance to possible events:

    • Increased resistance to earthquakes, impact or explosion etc.

    To repair design or construction defects such as:

    • Insufficient / inadequate reinforcement
    • Insufficient / inadequate structural depth


    ▪ Combination of very high strength and high stiffness

    ▪ Non-corroding

    ▪ Excellent durability and fatigue resistance

    ▪ Unlimited lengths, no joints required Low system thickness, simple execution of plate intersections or crossings

    ▪ Easy transportation (rolls) Lightweight, very easy to install, especially overhead (without temporary support)

    ▪ Minimum preparation of plate, applicable in several layers

    ▪ Smooth edges without exposed fibres as result of production by pultrusion

    ▪ Extensive testing and approvals available from many countries worldwide

    Call FCS Concrete Repairs for all your structural strengthening requirements.

    Leura Western Culvert

    October 22nd, 2019 Posted by Projects 0 thoughts on “Leura Western Culvert”

    Projects Successfully Completed by FCS Concrete Repairs

    Client: Blue Mountains City Council

    Location: Blue Mountains

    Project: Leura Western Culvert

    FCS Concrete Repairs has repaired this ageing culvert for our client, the Blue Mountains City Council, and helped to prolong its life.

    Safety and Environmental Issues

    Environmental Safety Precautions to protect this pristine environment were our first priority.

    Employee Safety was also very important especially with visitors like this in the area.

    Figure 1  Just Visiting: Brown Snake

    Royal Flying Doctor Service – Snake Bite Safety Quiz

    https://engage-nswact.flyingdoctor.org.au › content › snakebitesafetyquiz

    This information could save your life.

    Nature of Work:

    Concrete spalling repairs to internal surface of western culvert by breaking out exposed reinforcement and repair using ready to use mortars.

    Repair Methodology:

    • Prepare and submit an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the works.
    • Install encapsulating bund platform.
    • Breakout concrete to expose corroded reinforcement into sound concrete.
    • Do not use abrasive blasting method.
    • Minimum gap and cover 20-25mm.
    • Breakout until non-corroded steel is reached plus 50mm.
    • Clean exposed reinforcement to remove all corroded steel and foreign matter.
    • Wash with low pressure water jet.
    • Coat exposed steel with Sika® EpoCem®.
    • Apply bond coat, Sika MonoTop 910 emulsion.
    • Use Sika MonoTop repair mortar.
    • Seal the entire internal surface of the culvert with corrosion inhibitor, plus hydrophobic impregnating coats:
    • Apply Migrating Corrosion Inhibitor Application Sika® FerroGard®-903 Plus.
    • Apply Sikagard®-706 Thixo is a Silane based water repellent impregnation cream.
    • Wet Vac
    • Pressure Clean on completion.

     Products Recommended for this Project by FCS Concrete Repairs:

     Sika® SikaTop 110 EpoCem®.

    SikaTop® Armatec®-110 EpoCem® is a cementitious epoxy resin compensated 3-component coating material with corrosion inhibitor, used as bonding primer and reinforcement corrosion protection.


    • Suitable for control of anodic areas (Principle 11, method 11.1 EN 1504-9)
    • Suitable in concrete repair as corrosion protection for reinforcement.
    • Suitable as a bonding primer on concrete and mortar
    • Suitable for Increasing cover in Low Cover Concrete rectification.


    • Contains EpoCem® technology – improved bonding agent
    • Extended open times for repair mortars
    • Compatible with most Sika MonoTop® repair mortars
    • Excellent adhesion to concrete and steel
    • Contains corrosion inhibitor
    • Certified for application under dynamic load conditions
    • Good resistance to water and chloride penetration
    • High shear strength
    • Long pot life
    • Easy to mix
    • Can be brushed on or applied using spray gun
    • 2mm cured material equivalent to approx. 50mm of Concrete

    Sika MonoTop 910 N

    Sika® MonoTop®-910 N is a cementitious, polymer modified one-component coating material containing silica fume. (Replaces Monotop 610)


    Sika® MonoTop®-910 N is used as bonding primer and reinforcement corrosion protection for reinforcement and is suitable:

    – For the control of anodic areas (Principle 11, method 11.1 of EN 1504-9)

    – As a bonding primer on concrete and mortar

    – In concrete repair as reinforcement corrosion protection


    – Easy to mix, just add water

    – User-friendly application

    – Excellent adhesion to concrete and steel

    – Good resistance to water and chloride penetration

    – Good mechanical strengths

    – Can be brushed on or applied using spray gun

    Sika MonoTop 352 NFG Repair Mortar

    R3 light-weight, structural repair mortar. High build repair mortar, 4 – 75mm in one application. Excellent workability and finish and suitable for overhead and vertical applications. Low shrinkage


    • Suitable for restoration work (Principle 3, method 3.1 & 3.3 of EN 1504-9). Repair of spalling and damaged concrete in buildings, bridges, infrastructure and superstructure works.
    • Suitable for repair works to concrete with a compressive strength of 25-45 MPa.
    • Suitable for structural strengthening (principle 4, method 4.4 of EN 1504-9). Increasing the bearing capacity of the concrete structure by adding mortar.
    • Suitable for preserving or restoring passivity (principle 7, method 7.1 and 7.2 of EN 1504-9). Increasing cover with additional mortar and replacing contaminated or carbonated concrete.


    • Polymer modified for increased durability
    • Superior workability and finishing
    • Suitable for hand and machine application
    • Can be applied up to 75 mm thick per application layer
    • Portable water approved to AS/NZS 4020:2005 – Testing of products for use in contact with drinking water
    • Class R3 of EN 1504-3
    • Low density but still suitable for structural repair
    • Very low shrinkage behaviour
    • Does not require a bonding primer even when manually applied
    • Contains corrosion inhibitor Low chloride permeability

    Sika® FerroGard®-903 Plus

    Sika® FerroGard®-903+ is a unique blend of non-toxic, organic corrosion inhibitor based on amino alcohol and salts of amino alcohol technology, designed for use as an impregnation on hardened reinforced concrete.

    Sika® FerroGard®-903+ penetrates the concrete and forms an adsorbed protective film on the surface of the steel reinforcement. The protective adsorbed film of Sika® FerroGard®-903+ reduces the rate of corrosion in carbonated and chloride contaminated concrete.

    Reinforced Corrosion Controls of Culverts


    Reinforced concrete structure.

    Chloride induced corrosion to internal and external deck surfaces.

    Localised concrete damage.

    Low concrete cover to reinforcement.


    Reduce active corrosion rates and maintain passive corrosion levels.

    Control corrosion by anodic and cathodic principles.

    Provide up to 10 years additional protection before next maintenance.

    Sika Solution:

    Testing to prove penetration of Sika® FerroGard®-903 Plus to depth of reinforcement.

    Clean concrete surfaces.

    Concrete repairs using Sika® MonoTop® – 352 NFG

    Application of Sika® FerroGard®- 903 Plus

    Application of e.g. Sikagard® 706 Hydrophobic Impregnation.

    Sikagard®-706 Thixo

    Silane based water repellent impregnation cream. Ready for use

    Long term efficiency, deep penetration. Low VOC content


    Sikagard®-706 Thixo is used as water-repellent impregnation (hydrophobic treatment) for absorbent substrates such as concrete in civil engineering or building concrete structures subjected to heavy stress due to freeze and thaw cycles and de-icing salts, chloride attack in marine environment, etc…

    • Suitable for protection against ingress (Principle 1, method 1.1 of EN 1504-9)
    • Suitable for moisture control (Principle 2, method 2.1 of EN 1504-9)
    • Suitable for increasing the resistivity (Principle 8, method 8.1 of EN 1504-9)


    • Non-sag (thixotropic) consistency, allowing wastage-free application of sufficient quantities and assuring deep penetration
    • Reduction of water absorption
    • Reduction of absorption of aggressive or deleterious agents dissolved in water (i.e. de-icing salts or chloride from marine environment)
    • No noticeable change of water vapour permeability
    • Not film forming
    • Ready for use
    • Long term efficiency, deep penetration
    • Increases the resistance of concrete to freeze and thaw cycles and de-icing salts
    • Resistant to sea water
    • Low VOC content


    Peach Tree Road Bridge, Megalong Valley NSW

    October 22nd, 2019 Posted by Projects 0 thoughts on “Peach Tree Road Bridge, Megalong Valley NSW”

    Projects Successfully Completed by FCS Concrete Repairs

    Client: Blue Mountains City Council

    Location: Blue Mountains

    Project: Peach Tree Road Bridge, Megalong Valley NSW

    FCS Concrete Repairs has taken the bump and the thump out of the Peach Tree Road Bridge road surface for our client, the Blue Mountains City Council, and helped to prolong the life and amenity of the bridge.








    Safety Precautions were our first priority.



















    Nature of Work:

    Open Construction Joints were repaired and filled with a flexible filler.

    Failing Concrete patches were also repaired and filled.

    An important aspect of this relatively small but important job was to provide a smooth transition across the repairs.

    Repair Methodology:

    Establish a work safe zone using a FCS procedures.

    A Safe Work Method Statement and / or Task Risk Assessment, evacuation plan including the closest medical facility will be written and all personnel will be inducted into it before starting works. A toolbox talk will be held every day before starting works.

    Establish the concrete elements types that require repairing and scope up an agreed repair and remediation work method, procedures and draft agreed ITP’s Inspection and Test Plans for the works.

    Repair Methodology strictly as per Australasian Concrete Repair Association (ACRA) Australian Standard Concrete Repair Methodology HB 84:2018.Guide to Concrete Repair and Protection.

    Products Recommended for this Project by FCS Concrete Repairs:

    Sikasil 728NS








    Sikasil-728 NS is a non-sag, one-component, ultra-low modulus elastomeric, neutral cure silicone sealant for sealing of joints in pavements according to ASTM D-5893.

    Characteristics / Advantages

    • Ready to use
    • Very high movement capability (ASTM C-719) +100%, -50%
    • Excellent flexibility for use in extremely high and low temperature climates
    • Very good adhesion, especially to concrete
    • Extremely long service life due the outstanding UV resistance

    Environmental Information

    Specific Characteristics:

    VOC Content  1,64% by wt

    Specific Ratings:

    LEED® EQc 4.1 – passes

    SCAQMD, Rule 1168 – passes

    BAAQMD, Reg. 8, Rule 51 – passes

    Sika Primer 3N


    Sika® Primer-3 N is a solvent-based, one-part primer for Sikasil® products used on porous substrates (e.g. concrete) and metals.

    Characteristics / Advantages

    ■ Easy to apply ■ Water-repellent ■   Isocyanate-free ■ Short flash-off time

    Sika Lightlon Rod Closed Cell Foam Backing Rod

    Sika Backing Rod is manufactured from extruded, closed cell polyethylene foam, available in rods with different diameters and lengths.

    Use: Sika Backing Rod is used as a back up material for cold applied Sika sealants to give the sealant the correct thickness. It also acts as a bondbreaker, permitting the most efficient joint design.

    Characteristics / Advantages

    • Provide firm backing for joints subject to hydrostatic pressure
    • Easy to apply
    • Closed cell
    • No bond to most sealants
    • Compatible with cold applied sealants (polyurethane, silicones)
    • Different rod diameters
    • Good water resistance
    • Odourless

    Re-Certification of our Integrated (Quality) Management System

    October 22nd, 2019 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “Re-Certification of our Integrated (Quality) Management System”

    FCS Concrete Repairs’ Integrated (Quality) Management System latest three yearly Re-Certification Audit has been successfully completed and FCS Concrete Repairs can continue to proudly display our Quality ticks and assure our customers that we will continue to provide a quality service.

    Has the World’s Largest Concrete Mass Slowed the Earth’s Rotation and Tilted it’s Axis?

    October 22nd, 2019 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “Has the World’s Largest Concrete Mass Slowed the Earth’s Rotation and Tilted it’s Axis?”

    The answer according to the experts is yes!

    The Three Gorges Dam in China is the world’s largest concrete mass.

    Length: 2,335 metres

    Height: 181 metres

    Weight of Steel Reinforcement: 463,000 tonnes

    Weight of Concrete: 40,000,000 tonnes (16,000,000 m3)

    Weight of Water: raised 35,000,000 tonnes of water 175 metres above sea level.

    NASA have calculated that:

    • the length of a day has increased by six hundredths of a microsecond
    • the North and South Poles have moved by 2 centimetres

    NASA’s reasoning is that the total mass of the dam is large enough to:

    1. tilt the Earth’s axis, and
    2. slow the Earth’s rotation.

    An Interesting Feature of the Three Gorges Dam:

    The Dam has A Ships Elevator.

    It can lift ships with a maximum displacement up to 3,000 tonnes and is designed to lift a total weight of 15,500 tonnes by up to 113 metres.

    How can this be achieved?

    Archimedes’ principle of displacement is the scientific answer.


    Archimedes of Syracuse was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer. Although few details of his life are known, he is regarded as one of the leading scientists in classical antiquity. Generally considered the greatest mathematician of antiquity and one of the greatest of all time, Archimedes anticipated modern calculus and analysis by applying concepts of infinitesimals and the method of exhaustion to derive and rigorously prove a range of geometrical theorems, including the area of a circle, the surface area and volume of a sphere, and the area under a parabola.

    Archimedes‘ principle states that the upward buoyant force that is exerted on a body immersed in a fluid, whether fully or partially submerged, is equal to the weight of the fluid that the body’s displaces and acts in the upward direction at the centre of mass of the displaced fluid.

    In more simple terms, any floating object displaces its own weight of fluid.

    The Ship Lift Structure:

    The main components of the structure are four 169m high reinforced concrete towers.

    The four towers are built on a continuous foundation slab, directly on granite rock.

    Between the towers the steel ship chamber, which is 132m long, is suspended from 256 ropes that are connected with counterweights via 128 double rope pulleys at the tops of the towers.

    Each pair of towers on the long sides of the ship chamber is flanked by shear walls.

    The walls and towers are connected by coupling beams distributed evenly over the height.

    Two bridges between the towers are located above the ship chamber, one for the central control room and one for a visitor platform.

    The Step by Step Process:

    When a ship heads upstream, it first has to get into the fifth chamber.

    Close the fifth chamber and make the water level in fifth chamber the same with the fourth chamber.

    Then, open the gate between fifth chamber and fourth chamber and ship goes into the fourth chamber.

    Repeat this step in each chamber and the ship can cross the five chambers by passing six gates.

    And voilà, the ship exits from the top chamber and proceeds into the upper Yangtze River.

    Who designed the Ship Lift?

    Jointly designed by Chinese and German engineers.

    This is how it looks in action:


     Video: Published by New China TV on 17 September 2016.

    The Three Gorges Dam is also a Giant Power Station:

    Three Gorges Dam is the world’s largest power station in terms of installed capacity of 2,500 MegaWatts.

    The dam is the largest operating hydroelectric facility in terms of annual energy generation, generating over 100 billion kilowatt hours in 2018.

    There are twenty-six rotating generators.

    These generators use Francis Turbines.

    This is one of the Turbine Rotors.

    The Three Gorges Dam is an amazing engineering feat and great credit must go to the Engineers and Builders and thousands of workers who created this enormous technically advanced concrete structure.



    Your concrete repair project may not be as large as the Three Gorges Dam but nevertheless it is important to us. So please call for Advice and a Quote.

    Martian Concrete How to Make Concrete on Mars!

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Insights 0 thoughts on “Martian Concrete How to Make Concrete on Mars!”

    In order to colonise Mars, buildings will be needed and these will obviously need to be constructed from the planet’s own resources.

    What are the issues and how will this be done?

    The first issue is the apparent lack of water on Mars!

    Can Martian concrete be formed without using water?

    But Mars is a sulphur rich planet!

    NASA Mars Rover Churns Up Questions with Sulphur-Rich Soil

    Some bright Martian soil containing lots of sulfur and a trace of water intrigues researchers who are studying information provided by NASA’s Spirit rover. 

    “This material could have been left behind by water that dissolved these minerals underground, then came to the surface and evaporated, or it could be a volcanic deposit formed around ancient gas vents,” said Dr. Ray Arvidson of Washington University, St. Louis. He is the deputy principal investigator for NASA’s twin Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. 

    Determining which of those two hypotheses is correct would strengthen understanding of the environmental history of the Columbia Hills region that Spirit has been exploring since a few months after landing on Mars in January 2004. However, investigating the bright soil presents a challenge for the rover team, because the loose material could entrap the rover. 

    Image right: While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of “McCool Hill,” the wheels of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image, taken on the rover’s 788th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 22, 2006), shows the strikingly bright tone and large extent of the materials uncovered. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell

    The bright white and yellow material was hidden under a layer of normal-looking soil until Spirit’s wheels churned it up while the rover was struggling to cross a patch of unexpectedly soft soil nearly a year ago. The right front wheel had stopped working a week earlier. Controllers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., were trying to maneuver the rover backwards, dragging that wheel, to the north slope of a hill in order to spend the southern-hemisphere winter with solar panels tilted toward the sun. 

    Due to the difficulty crossing that patch, informally named “Tyrone,” the team chose to drive Spirit to a smaller but more accessible slope for the winter. Spirit stayed put in its winter haven for nearly seven months. Tyrone was one of several targets Spirit examined from a distance during that period, using an infrared spectrometer to check their composition. The instrument detected small amounts of water bound to minerals in the soil. 

    The rover resumed driving in late 2006 when the Martian season brought sufficient daily sunshine to the solar panels. Some of the bright soil from Tyrone was dragged to the winter site by the right front wheel, and Spirit spent some time measuring the composition and mineralogy of these materials. The material is sulfur-rich and consists of sulfate salts associated with iron, and likely calcium. “These salts could have been concentrated by hydrothermal liquid or vapor moving through the local rocks,” said rover science team member Dr. Albert Yen, a geochemist at JPL. Two other patches of bright soil uncovered by Spirit before Tyrone were also sulfur-rich, but each had similarities to local rock compositions that were different at the three sites, suggesting localized origins. 

    Researchers will watch for more patches of bright soil. “If we find them along fractures, that would suggest they were deposited at ancient gas vents,” Arvidson said. “If they are at the saddles between hills, that would suggest the deposits formed where groundwater came to the surface.” 

    Above article was originally published in NASA.gov

    Is that the solution?

    Sulphur can be heated so that it becomes liquid. If the sulphur liquid is added to the Martian soil/aggregate (consisting of silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, iron oxide, titanium dioxide) and allowed to cool the sulphur will solidify and bind to the Martian soil/aggregate to create Martian concrete.

    But can it be made durable enough to be useful on Mars?

    Research has found that a 50:50 mix of sulphur and soil with maximum aggregate size of 1mm will produce concrete with a compressive strength of above 50MPa. The Martian atmospheric and temperature range are adequate for hosting sulphur concrete structures.

    An interesting side light is that Martin concrete can be reheated until the sulphur melts and is infinitely re-useable and infinitely repairable.


    (Ref  A Novel Material for In Situ Construction on Mars: Experiments and Numerical Simulations Lin Wan, R Wendner, G. Cusatis and associates at Northwestern University, U.S.A.)


    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Featured Products 0 thoughts on “FEATURED PRODUCT: CONDUR ARP”

    Description: A flexible 2-part polyurethane based elastomeric concrete mixed with part 3 proprietary aggregates with excellent bond to steel & concrete, high load bearing capacity, impact, vibration, chemical, oil resistant. Trafficable within one hour of application.

    Principle Uses: Suitable for repairs to ways, highways, bridges, expansion joints and for installation of new expansion joints.

    Coverage/Yield: 1800 kg/m3

    Condur ARP Advantages

    • Flexible & do not need to destroy the surrounding concrete
    • Epoxy & most other high early strength repair materials prematurely fail because they are rigid.
    • Rigid repair materials installed in rigid pavement require that both the materials have similar coefficient of expansion. Most do not and as a result destroy the surrounding patch & concrete.
    • Condur ARP provides a flexible patch that will deflect as surrounding concrete expands and contracts rather than destroy it.
    • High compressive stress & elasticity unlike epoxies, Condur ARP can handle heavy pressure before deflecting and allows itself to return to its original state after deflection.
    • High impact resistant – under bitterly cold conditions Condur ARP withstands heavy impact unlike epoxy and concrete-based materials that shatter.
    • Resistant to chemicals & discolouration over time – excellent U.V. resistance.
    • Excellent adhesion to steel and concrete.
    • Greater compressive strength along with better impact resistance.
    • Can be easily installed with early strength gain & flexibility.
    • Can accept traffic in approx. one hour.
    • Fully cured material is resistant to changes in temperature.
    • Use as a pourable sealant in expansion joints.
    • Withstands heavy loading.
    • Resistant to chemicals & fuel oils.

    See Full Technical Data Sheet



    Final Setting Time @25oC: Approx. 60 min.

    Specific Gravity @25oC: Approx. 1.8 kg/litre

    Rheological Properties

     (Immediately after mixing): Self-Leveling.

    Tensile Strength: > 5 MPa. ASTM D638

    Elongation at Break: > 50 % ASTM D638

    Shore D Hardness: Approx.55-60 (Full Cure) ASTM D2240

    Impact Resistance: No crack or breaks observed. ASTM D3029

    Abrasion Test: 139 Mg/1000 cycles

    Compressive Strength: 7 Days @25oC 7.5 – 12 N/mm2 ASTM C579

    Trafficable at 25oC: Approx. 1 hour.

    Full Cure Time at 25oC: 7 Days

    Adhesion Bond Strength: 3.2 N/mm2 to Concrete @ 7 Days ASTM D4541

    Chemical Resistance: Dilute sulphuric acid

    Dilute NaOH solution

    Sea water

    Chlorine water

    Waste water


    Soap solution

    Fuels & oils ASTM D543


    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Concrete Repairs, Featured Case Study 0 thoughts on “FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE FLOOR, WALLS AND EXTERNAL PAVING REPAIRS”

    FCS Concrete Repairs are experts in the repair of damaged factory and warehouse floors.

    FCS Concrete Repairs have the experience in all facets of concrete repair:

    • Concrete Floor Repair and Crack Injection
    • Concrete Wall Repair and Crack Injection
    • Joint Filling
    • Reinforced Concrete Replacement
    • Concrete Patch Repairs
    • Flexible Concrete Infills Across Joint [Latest Technology – Elastomeric Concrete]
    • Delaminated Concrete Topping Repair
    • Grated Drain Repair

    Does this look like your factory or warehouse floor or your external paving?

    Typically, concrete floors in factories and warehouses require repair due to:

    • Forklift damage
    • Cracking
    • Joint failure
    • Surface delamination, scaling, dusting
    • Sub-base subsidence, wash-outs, voids
    • Chemical damage
    • Design issues
    • Wear and tear

    If your factory or warehouse floors are affected by any of these issues then FCS Concrete Repairs have the experience and expertise to investigate, test, diagnose and recommend the most cost effective course of action to repair the floor and mitigate any further deterioration or future damage.

    Concrete floors suffer this damage due to a large number of contributing causes:

    • Forklift damage to floor joints and floor areas
    • Heavy Loading damage to floors
    • Failure when design limits are exceeded
    • Subsidence of the sub-base
    • Washout of the sub-base
    • Poorly compacted sub-base
    • Structural cracking
    • Cold storage damage to floors
    • Machinery loading on floors
    • Machinery vibration impacts
    • Concrete dusting
    • Concrete wear and tear
    • Rusting of internal reinforcement steel
    • Potholes
    • Floor demarcation line and safety marking wear
    • Ingress of water
    • Chemical damage
    • Ground movement
    • Stress loadings
    • Temperature changes
    • Product contamination of floor surface
    • Delamination of concrete toppings
    • Surface scaling
    • Deterioration of applied coatings
    • Plastic shrinkage cracking
    • Overworking of surface during concrete placing
    • Inadequate curing
    • Premature surface sealing during concrete placing
    • Improper concrete compaction
    • Excessive moisture loss during concrete placing
    • Poor structural design


    It is important to determine the root cause of the concrete failure and develop a strategy to remedy the cause and complete an effective repair with a minimum of disruption to operations by delivering the best possible outcome.

    FCS Concrete Repairs have a strong knowledge base to ensure that any repairs are effective. Our extensive prior experience in concrete construction, concrete repair techniques, selection of the appropriate repair methods and the right repair materials for the job will ensure a quality repair. There are a wide range of repair materials and selection of the correct material and methodology is critical to a successful outcome.

    FCS Concrete Repairs repair techniques include:

    Concrete Floor Repair and Crack Injection

    Concrete Wall Repair and Crack Injection

    Joint Filling

    Reinforced Concrete Replacement



    Concrete Patch Repairs

    Flexible Concrete Infills Across Joint [Latest Technology – Elastomeric Concrete]

    Delaminated Concrete Topping Repair

    Grated Drain Repair

    FCS Concrete Repairs are members of ACRA, the Australasian Concrete Repair Association.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are the Preferred and Approved Contractors to the major material suppliers such as Prime Resins in the USA, Parchem, Sika, Epirez, International, Fosroc, Dulux and Thorhelical Remedial Solutions.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are quality accredited:


    Our reputation is important to us and is built upon experience and an understanding of the importance of the full and thorough preparation of the repair area. Inadequate preparation and short cuts are not the answer to an effective repair and a sound LONG TERM solution.

    THE CHEAPEST PRICE IS NOT ALWAYS THE ANSWER but FCS Concrete Repairs can offer a competitive solution without sacrificing quality.

    If your property is in need of repair please contact us, firstly, for an inspection, secondly, for advice and, thirdly, for our recommended solution and competitive quotation.

    What Is Elastomeric Concrete?

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “What Is Elastomeric Concrete?”

    Elastomeric Concrete is a flexible 2-part polyurethane patching material mixed with aggregates and can be used as a filler in expansion joints which experience large movements.

    The properties which are most important for these materials are flexibility, elasticity, and bond strength.

    Flexibility and elasticity allow the material to absorb shock caused by traffic impacting on the extrusions.

    Bond strength to the adjacent surface is critical in all conditions, both wet and dry.

    Obtaining adequate flexibility and bond strength together in one material is difficult but has been achieved with this material.

    The key characteristics

    Elastomeric Concrete provides a flexible patch with excellent adhesion that will deflect as surrounding concrete expands and contracts and can resist heavy pressure before deflecting. The critical point is that Elastomeric Concrete allows itself to return to its original state after deflection.

    FCS Concrete Repairs has successfully used Elastomeric Concrete for repairing and patching concrete floors. This includes patching across expansion joints without the need for expensive joint reconstruction or major concrete removal.

    The following project photos illustrate the advantages of Elastomeric Concrete patching material:

    A Patch Across an expansion joint

    A Patch at the intersection of several expansion joints


    A Patch along an expansion joint

    A Patch at an entry threshold

    A Patch at a column base

    A Patch along an irregular crack

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