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    Martian Concrete How to Make Concrete on Mars!

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Insights 0 thoughts on “Martian Concrete How to Make Concrete on Mars!”

    In order to colonise Mars, buildings will be needed and these will obviously need to be constructed from the planet’s own resources.

    What are the issues and how will this be done?

    The first issue is the apparent lack of water on Mars!

    Can Martian concrete be formed without using water?

    But Mars is a sulphur rich planet!


    NASA Mars Rover Churns Up Questions with Sulphur-Rich Soil

    Some bright Martian soil containing lots of sulfur and a trace of water intrigues researchers who are studying information provided by NASA’s Spirit rover. 

    “This material could have been left behind by water that dissolved these minerals underground, then came to the surface and evaporated, or it could be a volcanic deposit formed around ancient gas vents,” said Dr. Ray Arvidson of Washington University, St. Louis. He is the deputy principal investigator for NASA’s twin Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity. 

    Determining which of those two hypotheses is correct would strengthen understanding of the environmental history of the Columbia Hills region that Spirit has been exploring since a few months after landing on Mars in January 2004. However, investigating the bright soil presents a challenge for the rover team, because the loose material could entrap the rover. 

    Image right: While driving eastward toward the northwestern flank of “McCool Hill,” the wheels of NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover Spirit churned up the largest amount of bright soil discovered so far in the mission. This image, taken on the rover’s 788th Martian day, or sol, of exploration (March 22, 2006), shows the strikingly bright tone and large extent of the materials uncovered. Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Cornell

    The bright white and yellow material was hidden under a layer of normal-looking soil until Spirit’s wheels churned it up while the rover was struggling to cross a patch of unexpectedly soft soil nearly a year ago. The right front wheel had stopped working a week earlier. Controllers at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., were trying to maneuver the rover backwards, dragging that wheel, to the north slope of a hill in order to spend the southern-hemisphere winter with solar panels tilted toward the sun. 

    Due to the difficulty crossing that patch, informally named “Tyrone,” the team chose to drive Spirit to a smaller but more accessible slope for the winter. Spirit stayed put in its winter haven for nearly seven months. Tyrone was one of several targets Spirit examined from a distance during that period, using an infrared spectrometer to check their composition. The instrument detected small amounts of water bound to minerals in the soil. 

    The rover resumed driving in late 2006 when the Martian season brought sufficient daily sunshine to the solar panels. Some of the bright soil from Tyrone was dragged to the winter site by the right front wheel, and Spirit spent some time measuring the composition and mineralogy of these materials. The material is sulfur-rich and consists of sulfate salts associated with iron, and likely calcium. “These salts could have been concentrated by hydrothermal liquid or vapor moving through the local rocks,” said rover science team member Dr. Albert Yen, a geochemist at JPL. Two other patches of bright soil uncovered by Spirit before Tyrone were also sulfur-rich, but each had similarities to local rock compositions that were different at the three sites, suggesting localized origins. 

    Researchers will watch for more patches of bright soil. “If we find them along fractures, that would suggest they were deposited at ancient gas vents,” Arvidson said. “If they are at the saddles between hills, that would suggest the deposits formed where groundwater came to the surface.” 

    Above article was originally published in NASA.gov


    Is that the solution?

    Sulphur can be heated so that it becomes liquid. If the sulphur liquid is added to the Martian soil/aggregate (consisting of silicon dioxide, aluminum oxide, iron oxide, titanium dioxide) and allowed to cool the sulphur will solidify and bind to the Martian soil/aggregate to create Martian concrete.

    But can it be made durable enough to be useful on Mars?

    Research has found that a 50:50 mix of sulphur and soil with maximum aggregate size of 1mm will produce concrete with a compressive strength of above 50MPa. The Martian atmospheric and temperature range are adequate for hosting sulphur concrete structures.

    An interesting side light is that Martin concrete can be reheated until the sulphur melts and is infinitely re-useable and infinitely repairable.

    PROBLEM SOLVED!

    (Ref  A Novel Material for In Situ Construction on Mars: Experiments and Numerical Simulations Lin Wan, R Wendner, G. Cusatis and associates at Northwestern University, U.S.A.)

    FEATURED PRODUCT: CONDUR ARP

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Featured Products 0 thoughts on “FEATURED PRODUCT: CONDUR ARP”

    Description: A flexible 2-part polyurethane based elastomeric concrete mixed with part 3 proprietary aggregates with excellent bond to steel & concrete, high load bearing capacity, impact, vibration, chemical, oil resistant. Trafficable within one hour of application.

    Principle Uses: Suitable for repairs to ways, highways, bridges, expansion joints and for installation of new expansion joints.

    Coverage/Yield: 1800 kg/m3

    Condur ARP Advantages

    • Flexible & do not need to destroy the surrounding concrete
    • Epoxy & most other high early strength repair materials prematurely fail because they are rigid.
    • Rigid repair materials installed in rigid pavement require that both the materials have similar coefficient of expansion. Most do not and as a result destroy the surrounding patch & concrete.
    • Condur ARP provides a flexible patch that will deflect as surrounding concrete expands and contracts rather than destroy it.
    • High compressive stress & elasticity unlike epoxies, Condur ARP can handle heavy pressure before deflecting and allows itself to return to its original state after deflection.
    • High impact resistant – under bitterly cold conditions Condur ARP withstands heavy impact unlike epoxy and concrete-based materials that shatter.
    • Resistant to chemicals & discolouration over time – excellent U.V. resistance.
    • Excellent adhesion to steel and concrete.
    • Greater compressive strength along with better impact resistance.
    • Can be easily installed with early strength gain & flexibility.
    • Can accept traffic in approx. one hour.
    • Fully cured material is resistant to changes in temperature.
    • Use as a pourable sealant in expansion joints.
    • Withstands heavy loading.
    • Resistant to chemicals & fuel oils.

    See Full Technical Data Sheet

     

    PROPERTIES


    Final Setting Time @25oC: Approx. 60 min.

    Specific Gravity @25oC: Approx. 1.8 kg/litre

    Rheological Properties

     (Immediately after mixing): Self-Leveling.

    Tensile Strength: > 5 MPa. ASTM D638

    Elongation at Break: > 50 % ASTM D638

    Shore D Hardness: Approx.55-60 (Full Cure) ASTM D2240

    Impact Resistance: No crack or breaks observed. ASTM D3029

    Abrasion Test: 139 Mg/1000 cycles

    Compressive Strength: 7 Days @25oC 7.5 – 12 N/mm2 ASTM C579

    Trafficable at 25oC: Approx. 1 hour.

    Full Cure Time at 25oC: 7 Days

    Adhesion Bond Strength: 3.2 N/mm2 to Concrete @ 7 Days ASTM D4541

    Chemical Resistance: Dilute sulphuric acid

    Dilute NaOH solution

    Sea water

    Chlorine water

    Waste water

    Glycerine

    Soap solution

    Fuels & oils ASTM D543

    FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE FLOOR, WALLS AND EXTERNAL PAVING REPAIRS

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Concrete Repairs, Featured Case Study 0 thoughts on “FACTORY AND WAREHOUSE FLOOR, WALLS AND EXTERNAL PAVING REPAIRS”

    FCS Concrete Repairs are experts in the repair of damaged factory and warehouse floors.

    FCS Concrete Repairs have the experience in all facets of concrete repair:

    • Concrete Floor Repair and Crack Injection
    • Concrete Wall Repair and Crack Injection
    • Joint Filling
    • Reinforced Concrete Replacement
    • Concrete Patch Repairs
    • Flexible Concrete Infills Across Joint [Latest Technology – Elastomeric Concrete]
    • Delaminated Concrete Topping Repair
    • Grated Drain Repair

    Does this look like your factory or warehouse floor or your external paving?

    Typically, concrete floors in factories and warehouses require repair due to:

    • Forklift damage
    • Cracking
    • Joint failure
    • Surface delamination, scaling, dusting
    • Sub-base subsidence, wash-outs, voids
    • Chemical damage
    • Design issues
    • Wear and tear

    If your factory or warehouse floors are affected by any of these issues then FCS Concrete Repairs have the experience and expertise to investigate, test, diagnose and recommend the most cost effective course of action to repair the floor and mitigate any further deterioration or future damage.

    Concrete floors suffer this damage due to a large number of contributing causes:

    • Forklift damage to floor joints and floor areas
    • Heavy Loading damage to floors
    • Failure when design limits are exceeded
    • Subsidence of the sub-base
    • Washout of the sub-base
    • Poorly compacted sub-base
    • Structural cracking
    • Cold storage damage to floors
    • Machinery loading on floors
    • Machinery vibration impacts
    • Concrete dusting
    • Concrete wear and tear
    • Rusting of internal reinforcement steel
    • Potholes
    • Floor demarcation line and safety marking wear
    • Ingress of water
    • Chemical damage
    • Ground movement
    • Stress loadings
    • Temperature changes
    • Product contamination of floor surface
    • Delamination of concrete toppings
    • Surface scaling
    • Deterioration of applied coatings
    • Plastic shrinkage cracking
    • Overworking of surface during concrete placing
    • Inadequate curing
    • Premature surface sealing during concrete placing
    • Improper concrete compaction
    • Excessive moisture loss during concrete placing
    • Poor structural design

     

    It is important to determine the root cause of the concrete failure and develop a strategy to remedy the cause and complete an effective repair with a minimum of disruption to operations by delivering the best possible outcome.

    FCS Concrete Repairs have a strong knowledge base to ensure that any repairs are effective. Our extensive prior experience in concrete construction, concrete repair techniques, selection of the appropriate repair methods and the right repair materials for the job will ensure a quality repair. There are a wide range of repair materials and selection of the correct material and methodology is critical to a successful outcome.

    FCS Concrete Repairs repair techniques include:

    Concrete Floor Repair and Crack Injection

    Concrete Wall Repair and Crack Injection

    Joint Filling

    Reinforced Concrete Replacement

     

     


    Concrete Patch Repairs


    Flexible Concrete Infills Across Joint [Latest Technology – Elastomeric Concrete]

    Delaminated Concrete Topping Repair

    Grated Drain Repair

    FCS Concrete Repairs are members of ACRA, the Australasian Concrete Repair Association.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are the Preferred and Approved Contractors to the major material suppliers such as Prime Resins in the USA, Parchem, Sika, Epirez, International, Fosroc, Dulux and Thorhelical Remedial Solutions.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are quality accredited:

    REPUTATION FOR QUALITY

    Our reputation is important to us and is built upon experience and an understanding of the importance of the full and thorough preparation of the repair area. Inadequate preparation and short cuts are not the answer to an effective repair and a sound LONG TERM solution.

    THE CHEAPEST PRICE IS NOT ALWAYS THE ANSWER but FCS Concrete Repairs can offer a competitive solution without sacrificing quality.

    If your property is in need of repair please contact us, firstly, for an inspection, secondly, for advice and, thirdly, for our recommended solution and competitive quotation.

    What Is Elastomeric Concrete?

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “What Is Elastomeric Concrete?”

    Elastomeric Concrete is a flexible 2-part polyurethane patching material mixed with aggregates and can be used as a filler in expansion joints which experience large movements.

    The properties which are most important for these materials are flexibility, elasticity, and bond strength.

    Flexibility and elasticity allow the material to absorb shock caused by traffic impacting on the extrusions.

    Bond strength to the adjacent surface is critical in all conditions, both wet and dry.

    Obtaining adequate flexibility and bond strength together in one material is difficult but has been achieved with this material.

    The key characteristics

    Elastomeric Concrete provides a flexible patch with excellent adhesion that will deflect as surrounding concrete expands and contracts and can resist heavy pressure before deflecting. The critical point is that Elastomeric Concrete allows itself to return to its original state after deflection.

    FCS Concrete Repairs has successfully used Elastomeric Concrete for repairing and patching concrete floors. This includes patching across expansion joints without the need for expensive joint reconstruction or major concrete removal.

    The following project photos illustrate the advantages of Elastomeric Concrete patching material:

    A Patch Across an expansion joint

    A Patch at the intersection of several expansion joints

     

    A Patch along an expansion joint

    A Patch at an entry threshold

    A Patch at a column base

    A Patch along an irregular crack

    RECENT PROJECT INVOLVING CRACK INJECTION

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Uncategorized 0 thoughts on “RECENT PROJECT INVOLVING CRACK INJECTION”

    Description: Repair of Reservoir Tank.

    Elements: Crack Injection, Cathodic Protection and Waterproof Membrane

    Scope of Works

    External crack repair methodology:

    1. Mark out repair areas.
    2. Square cut to a minimum of 10mm
    3. Scabble back to sound concrete
    4. Expose corroding reinforcement
    5. Break out concrete to a minimum of 25mm behind bar.
    6. Grit blast reinforcing
    7. Replace corroded reinforcement if necessary
    8.  Rout non-moving cracks to minimum of 10mm
    9. Install anodes to steel reinforcement at 300mm centres
    10. Check continuity of anodes to steel
    11. Coat steel with primer
    12. Pre-soak concrete substrate
    13. Apply specified bonding agent to concrete only
    14. Apply specified render material to prepared cracks
    15. Re-apply any dried bonding agent
    16. Cure render material immediately after finishing each repair.

    Internal crack repair methodology

    1. V-grind out cracks to 25mm
    2. Brush specified waterproofing system into base of prepared crack
    3. Trowel apply specified mortar to re-profile crack
    4. Damp cure repair material with wet hessian for five (5) days

    Rehabilitation of Internal Floor and Wall

    1. Polymer Modified Membrane to be coated onto internal wall and floor of the Water Tank.
    2. The VersEseal range seals invisible and hard to find leaks in water storage systems with a non-toxic chemical-resistant coating.
    3. VersEseal may be used on already damaged water tanks or can seal new structures to extend the life of the tank or liquid storage structure, protecting metal from corrosion.
    4. Application of VersEseal’s Waterproof Membrane System is straightforward, environmentally safe and free from hazardous fumes.
    5. It can be applied in confined spaces without the heavy duty personal protective equipment that some products require.

    LRM Products VersEseal – Rapid Build

    Heavy-duty textured waterproof sprayable & brushable coating for surface protection

    VersEseal Rapid Build is a single component product that may be applied using a roller, squeegee or aggregate spray equipment. VersEseal Rapid Build is applied in thickness from 1.0 – 2.0mm.

    LRM Products VersEseal – Rapid Build is a fluid applied polymer modified emulsion and is recommended for use in a variety of harsh environments, chemically exposed areas, temperature variations and high traffic areas.

    VersEseal Rapid Build when cured fully adheres to the substrate to which it is applied, providing a flexible long wearing surface and is formulated for application by brush, roller, trowel or squeege.

    Applications include concrete repair, expansion joints, foundation sealing, plumbing applications, retaining walls, roof repair, sewage pump stations, water tank membranes, reservoirs, waste water storage, civil pipe joints, UV protection.

    Galvashield XPT

    Embedded galvanic anodes are designed to provide localized corrosion protection.  When placed at the appropriate spacing along the perimeter of concrete patches or along the interface between new/existing concrete, the anodes mitigate the formation of new corrosion sites in the existing concrete in adjacent areas.

    Description

    The Galvashield XP range of embedded galvanic anode units utilise an innovative zinc anode core design surrounded by an enhanced formulated cement-based mortar to provide corrosion mitigation to reinforced concrete structures. The anode units are alkali-activated (Type A) with an internal pH of 14 or greater to keep the zinc active over the life of the anode while being non-corrosive to reinforcing steel. The anode units utilise 2G Technology™ to provide higher current output. Once installed, the zinc anode corrodes preferentially to the adjacent reinforcing steel, thereby providing galvanic corrosion prevention or corrosion control.

    Applications

     Mitigates incipient anode formation (halo effect) in patch repair applications

     Bridge widening and other structure modifications

     Slab replacements, expansion joint repairs and other interfaces between new and existing concrete

     Repair of prestressed and post-tensioned concrete

     Chloride contaminated or carbonated concrete

    Advantages

     Proven technology – Galvashield has an extensive 10 year track record in the field

     Type A anode – alkali-activated to maintain activity of zinc while being non-corrosive to reinforcing steel

     Cast zinc core – provides high anode utilisation in addition to a secure long-term connection between the zinc and the lead wires

     Integral steel lead wires – allows for quick and convenient anode installation. Provides dependable steel-to-steel contact with no intermediate materials such as galvanising (which can corrode over time) that may compromise the long-term electrical connection

     BarFit™ design – grooved edges on Galvashield XP2 and XP4 anode units assist with secure anode placement

     Economical – provides localised protection where it is needed the most, at the interface of the repair and the remaining contaminated concrete

     Versatile – can be used for both conventionally reinforced and prestressed or post-tensioned concrete

     Low maintenance – requires no external power source or system monitoring

     Long lasting – 10 to 20 year service life* reduces the need for future repairs. *As with all galvanic protection systems, service life and performance is dependent upon a number of

    factors including reinforcing steel density, concrete conductivity, chloride concentration, humidity and anode spacing.

    Galvanic Anode Installation

    1. Install anode units and repair material immediately following preparation and cleaning of the steel reinforcement.
    1. Galvanic anodes shall be installed along the perimeter of the repair or interface at a spacing of (x mm) as specified on the drawings. Anode spacing will vary with changes in the reinforcing steel density, the level of chloride in the structure and the corrosivity of the local environment, etc. 
    Note to Specifier:  Typical spacing for Galvashield XPT ranges from 430-610 mm.  The maximum anode spacing guidelines can be found on the Galvashield XP data sheet.  Anode spacing should be adjusted for aggressive service conditions or for an extended anode service life.
    • Provide sufficient clearance between anodes and substrate to allow repair material to encase anode. 
    • Secure the galvanic anodes as close as possible to the patch edge using the anode tie wires. The tie wires shall be wrapped around the cleaned reinforcing steel and twisted tight to allow little or no free movement.
    1. If less than 25 mm of concrete cover is expected, place anode beside or beneath the bar and secure to clean reinforcing steel.
    • If sufficient concrete cover exists, the anode may be placed along a single bar or at the intersection between two bars and secured to each clean bar.
    • If repair materials with resistivity greater than 15,000 ohm-cm are to be used or the resistivity is unknown, create a conductive grout bridge between the anode and the substrate. Pack Galvashield Embedding Mortar to cover minimum area of 100mm in diameter between the anode and the substrate concrete ensuring no voids exist.  
    • Electrical Continuity
    1. Confirm electrical connection between anode tie wire and reinforcing steel by measuring DC resistance (ohm,W) or potential (mV) with a multi-meter. 
    • Electrical connection is acceptable if the DC resistance measured with multi-meter is less than 1 W or the DC potential is less than 1 mV.
    • Confirm electrical continuity of the exposed reinforcing steel within the repair area. If necessary, electrical continuity shall be established with steel tie wire.
    • Electrical continuity between test areas is acceptable if the DC resistance measured with multi-meter is less than 1 W or the potential is less than 1 mV.

    Concrete Crack Injection

    March 12th, 2019 Posted by Blog, Concrete Repair, Concrete Repairs, Crack Injection 0 thoughts on “Concrete Crack Injection”

    Cracks in concrete need to be repaired as they are a potential threat to the viability of the steel reinforcement within the concrete structure due to the ingress of water. Water quickly causes the internal reinforcement to corrode, expand and cause the encasing concrete to fracture and break away.

    Early treatment will prevent this process from taking place and enable the injection of epoxy resins or polymers into the cracks. Once the process of corrosion is allowed to occur then a costly repair is necessary and the steel reinforcement needs to be treated or replaced to prevent failure of the structure due to a recurrence of the corrosion process or the need for further expensive repairs.

    THE CRACK INJECTION PROCESS

    The surface of the concrete is first cleaned along the crack. Loose material and contaminants are removed. The crack is the cleaned out to remove any material so that the resin or polymer can flow freely into and along the crack.

    Resin is then injected under pressure either into injection ports which have been place at intervals along the crack. Crack injection is a skilled task and should only be undertaken by experienced tradesmen.

    Crack injection may be undertaken using a pump to apply pressure or using a hand pressure gun.

    FCS Concrete Repairs are specialists in Crack Injection and Concrete Repair. There are a variety of repair processes and materials available and FCS Concrete Repairs are experienced in selecting the appropriate process and the specialist material required to carryout an effective repair.

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